Trevor Raab. During the eccentric phase, the muscle is prestretched, storing potential energy in the elastic components of the muscle (1-3). The stretch shortening cycle (SSC), sometimes referred to as reactive strength, is your ability to utilize elastic energy. The core of plyometrics is known as a stretch-shortening cycle. A. A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increase the force produced during the subsequent concentric action. Any client can benefit from improving power, including your athletes and beginners. The stretch-shortening cycle consists of two parts: concentric contraction (or contracting the muscles), followed by eccentric contractions ( or stretching the muscles). The official term is called the Stretch-Shortening Cycle or SCC. Currently, the SSC is the physiologic theory that forms the basis of plyometrics. Plyometric exercise refers to activities that enable a muscle to reach maximal force in the shortest time possible. The article is intended to provide Strength & Conditioning Coaches with an oveview of the the SSC, best coaching strategies, testing and monitoring of the SSC, specificity of exercise selection along with other important training concepts related to this method [] Plyometric exercises increase amplitude and velocity of movements by accentuating the eccentric phase of muscle contraction.

Plyometric exercises involve a rapid stretch - eccentric contraction (ECC) - of a muscle-tendon complex followed by an explosive shortening - concentric contraction (CON) - of a muscle-tendon complex. This article reviews the research relating to Plyometric Training and the Stretch Shortening Cycle (SSC). The entire concentric-amortization-eccentric process is often referred to as the stretch-shortening cycle. In reality, we leverage the stretch-shortening cycle in everyday life as well as in athletics. Plyometric exercises commence with a speedy stretch of a muscle and later followed by a speedy shortening of the same muscle, breaking the two periods into the eccentric and concentric phase. Sumbul Ansari Ph.D. Scholar CPRS, JMI Plyometric Training Plyometric ( plio = more; metric = measure) exercise is a quick, powerful movement using a prestretch, or countermovement, that involves the stretch-shortening cycle. The stretch shortening cycle combines the mechanical and neurophysiological mechanisms and is the basis of plyometric exercise. This is termed the stretch shortening cycle (SSC) - stretch being the ECC phase and shortening being the CON phase. suggests plyometric exercise drills should be performed by the throwing athlete. 3. 5 Lead Summary 6 7 This article reviews research relating to the stretch shortening cycle and plyometrics. If this transition is not done briefly, the elastic energy will dissipate as heat, and we have thereby nullified the benefits of the SSC. Plyometric is a type of exercise which utilizes the stretch-shortening cycle of musculotendinous tissue. Study Resources. The term stretchshortening cycle exercises is starting to replace the term plyometrics, and it describes this type of resistance exercise more accurately (Knuttgen and Kraemer 1987). The stretchshortening cycle (SSC) refers to a natural part of most movements; the cycle is a sequence of eccentric, isometric, and concentric actions. Plyometrics are ballistic exercises that make use of the stretch shortening cycle. The SSC is being used to enhance power production during a given jump, throw, pass, lift, etc. If possible, set aside time for a separate plyometric workout, apart from your regular training. The use of plyometric exercises uses the stretch-shortening cycle of muscle contraction to develop a more forceful contraction. The answer: The Stretch shortening cycle. Key Words: stretch-shortening cycle, exercise, muscle spindle stretch-shortening cycle: An eccentric muscle contraction followed immediately by a concentric contraction of the same muscle group. Plyometric exercise employs the concept of the stretch-shortening muscular cycle. The Fitness Benefits of Stretch-Shortening Cycle. At the beginning of this study, we expected that the plyometric training-induced increase in active muscle stiffness including the effect of the stretch reflex would be related to that in jump performance, because performance during stretch-shortening cycle exercises was affected by the stretch reflex (Horira et al., 1996; Kuitunen et al., 2002). This sequence of three phases is called the stretch-shortening cycle. This paper discusses the basic neurophysiological science and theoretical basis for plyometric exercise, and it describes an upper extremity stretch-shortening exercise program for the throwing athlete. An example is a countermovement jump. A between-group repeated measures design was used. This mechanism of plyometric training works to increase the muscles ability to exert maximal force in a minimal amount of time 1 , making you a more powerful athlete.

Identify and properly explain how to perform one (1) upper-body and one (1) lower-body plyometric exercise. And it refers to a countermovement action commonly observed during athletic movements such as the vertical jump with added arm swing for countermovement. The tendon, therefore, stretches to a longer length to store more elastic energy that will be returned during the concentric phase. The stretch shortening cycle (SSC) is the physiological mechanism involving an eccentric muscular and tissue stretch, followed by an amplified concentric contraction. During the eccentric phase, the muscle is prestretched, storing potential energy in the elastic components of the muscle (1-3). There are three main phases of muscle action: a) The Eccentric phase: the muscle lengthens under tension. Plyometric benefit: This jump is the first true plyometric in this progression, utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle. One highly valued element of rehabilitation after ACLR is the use of plyometric training.8 Plyometric exercises involve a stretch-shortening cycle, which is a commonly observed phenomenon involving a rapid lengthening of a muscle tendon unit, immediately followed by a rapid shortening (for a review see Davies et al. 69,72 Although the principles are similar, different forms of plyometric exercises should be applied to the upper extremity to train the stretch-shortening cycle. True plyometric movements involve the stretch-shortening cycle. Plyometrics is built upon versatile scientific principles ( stretch-shortening cycle, optimizing sarcomere distance, and stretch reflexes ) that can help individuals enormously boost their might output ( 2, 3 ) . high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. Plyometric exercises have three distinct phases, an eccentric phase, an amortization phase, and a concentric phase that releases the explosive force. stretch-shortening cycle.89,98 The terms plyometrics and stretch-shortening cycle are used synonymously by some authors,71 whereas others use the term stretch-shortening cycle in lieu of plyometric to differentiate from the literal translation of the Greek word pliometric (plio, more; plythein, increase; metric, meas- For more about the SCC see this article at Science for Sport . Plyometric Workouts for Speed and Acceleration. During rapid SSC, the muscles stiffen up and remain relatively isometric. The stretch shortening cycle affects the sensory response of the muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs (GTO). A between-group repeated measures design was used. Before adding plyometrics to a training program, one must first understand what is happening within the body. high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. The rapid shortening is able to occur because the MTC has elastic properties. (Fleck 2004) Plyometric Training Techniques Plyometric training can be used across the whole body and there are a number of different techniques available. Example: Being able to jump higher when you take a few steps first. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of APT on VJ and muscular strength in volleyball players. Plyometric exercises stress the rapid generation of (maximal) force, primarily during the eccentric (lengthening) phase of muscle action, and speeding the transition between the eccentric and concentric (shortening) phases. The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) in the plyometric exercise represents the loading phase of the Plyometric exercises wherein the muscle undergoes repetitive cyclical movements of eccentric contractions (muscle lengthening) followed by concentric contractions (muscle shortening) to propel themselves in an opposite direction with powerful intensity. The official term is called the Stretch-Shortening Cycle or SCC. Pick one of the four tests for assessing explosive strength. isometric (static), and concentric (shortening) muscle actions and that one very common power movement uses a stretch immediately prior to the muscle shortening. Main Menu; by School; Identify and properly explain how to perform one (1) upper-body and one (1) lower-body plyometric exercise. The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) works in two ways: neurophysiological and mechanical. Tennis plyometric training revolves around improving contact transition speed by exploiting the benefits of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of eight men before and after the training period. These three phases make up a stretch-shortening cycle. Provide an explanation of plyometric training for performance enhancement, including the goal of plyometrics, the mechanisms involved, and training variables to consider. Thirty-six subjects (age 20.3 1.6 years, mass 91.63 10.36 kg, stature 182.03 5.24 cm) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG), or a high volume Overhead activities, such as throwing, necessitate elastic loading to produce maximal, explosive, concentric muscular contractions. There are several physiological properties that play a role in the SSC. Plyometric exercise, by definition, is any exercise that involves a stretch immediately before an action. Essentially, plyometrics (aka plyos) are explosive exercises that involve producing the maximum amount of force in the shortest amount of time, says Chris Ryan, C.S.C.S., a certified personal trainer with MIRROR and a lululemon ambassador. An eccentric muscle contraction followed immediately by a concentric contraction of the same muscle group. The term stretchshortening cycle exercises is starting to replace the term plyometrics, and it describes this type of resistance exercise more accurately (Knuttgen and Kraemer 1987). Pick one of the four tests for assessing explosive strength. Number of repetitions for lower body are counted as number of foot contacts with surface and for upper body its counted as number of throws or catches. A key driver in the development of my plyometric training progression model was to highlight and distinguish between different (but all relevant) exercises along the plyometric continuum. The individual is prepared through appropriate strength development prior to beginning a plyometric program. A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increases the force produced during the subsequent concentric action. high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. ormance of aquatic plyometric training (APT) could lead to similar benefits, but with reduced risks due to the buoyancy of water. Training the body to make the most of this stretch-shortening cycle is the basis of plyometric exercise. So jumping is not necessarily plyometric. A form of exercise called plyometrics employs a quick, powerful movement involving a prestretch of the muscle, followed by a shortening, concentric muscular contraction, thus utilizing the stretch-shortening muscular cycle. A quick, powerful movement using pre-stretch, or countermovement, that involves the stretch-shortening cycle "_____" = "to increase measurement" "plyometric" = "to increase measurement" SSC combines mechanical and neurophysiological A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increases the force produced during the subsequent concentric action. J Strength Cond Res 33(1): 139-145, 2019-The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. The benefits of power-based exercises like plyometrics include an increased amount of power, but also better balance and reaction time, and may even reduce the potential for injury. From plyo pushups to jumping squats, these moves target the big muscle groups, harnessing the elastic energy in the stretch shortening cycle of muscle contractions to build brute power. INTRODUCTION Plyometric training is a series of explosive body weight resistance exercises using the stretch-shortening cycle of the muscle fiber to enhance physical capacities such as speed, strength, and power These physiologic measures translate to improved performance in many sport The tendon, therefore, stretches to a longer length to store more elastic energy that will be returned during the concentric phase. The elastic potentiation that occurs during the eccentric phase increases the force of output of the concentric contraction. During the concentric phase of the stretch-shortening cycle _____ stimulate the agonist muscle group. Therefore, different forms of plyometric exercises can be applied to the upper quarter to exploit the stretch-shortening cycle. Each sport will have appropriate exercises to address the SSC in a manner specific to the musculature and movements involved in the sport. ( See power).Plyometrics cause a muscle to stretch rapidly prior to contraction to perform movement (countermovement); this process is called the stretch-shortening cycle, or SSC. Plyometric exercises involve a rapid stretch - eccentric contraction (ECC) - of a muscle-tendon complex followed by an explosive shortening - concentric contraction (CON) - of a muscle-tendon complex. The stretch-shortening cycle combines mechanical and neurophysiological mechanisms and provides the underpinning basis of plyometric exercise. 20. Plyometric exercises involve the rapid stretch-shortening cycle. Plyometric training improves muscle stiffness.

Which one of these factors should NOT be assessed before starting a plyometric program. Plyometric Training. Plyometrics. A between-group repeated measures design was used. The muscle spindle thereby activating the stretch-shortening components that are primarily sensitive to cycle. True. When performing a plyometric exercise, you want to focus on intensity of the movement and quickness, for the max effect on the muscle fibers. First, plyometrics by definition is a quick and powerful concentric movement, preceded by an active pre-stretch, or countermovement that involves the use of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) (3). Functional performance of lower limb muscles and contractile properties of chemically skinned single muscle fibers were evaluated before and after 8 wk of maximal effort stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise training. There is the muscle spindle (wants to speed up contraction), the Golgi Tendon (wants to slow down contraction), the muscular The following sections outline how plyometric exercises can be progressively integrated into an athlete's training program and also outline appropriate methods of performance evaluation. Tag: stretch-shortening cycle News , Plyometrics , Speed & Agility , Strength & Conditioning , Workouts Tennis Plyometric Training: Optimizing Neural Pathways During this stretch, a few things happen, but one of the most important is the storage of energy. Develops fast twitch muscle fibres - also known as Type 2 muscle fibres, fast twitch muscle fibres help to power quick bursts of energy. Start standing, feet slightly wider than hip-width apart. B. During rapid SSC, the muscles stiffen up and remain relatively isometric. This is different from trying to lengthen a muscle while doing a stretch. Plyometric training is NOT HIIT training. The RFD is manifested during the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and depending upon the duration of the SSC, exercises are classified as either slow- ( Squat jump Single leg hop Squat box jump Depth jump to second box. Research studies. Plyometrics utilises the physiological mechanism known as the The Stretch Shortening Cycle (SSC) which involves the stretching of musculature immediately prior to being rapidly contracted. This is called the stretch shortening cycle. This is called the stretch shortening cycle. The stretch-shortening cycle, which is synonymous with jumping or plyometric exercises, is an excellent way to improve muscular strength, power, and speed. An example is a countermovement jump. stretch shortening cycle A fast rate of musculotendinous stretch is vital. This kind of training conditions the nervous system to react faster to the stretch-shortening cycle (Aagaard and Simonsen, 2002). Provide an example of a sport athlete who, in the course of competing, uses all three major energy pathways. Both lower extremity (LE) and upper extremity (UE) sports use the plyometric concept as part of functional movement patterns and skill when performing the sport. The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) works in. Now how do they relate to one another? Plyometric exercises are a series of drills that utilize explosive forces in functional or sport specific patterns that help you develop strength, power, and coordination. The opposite movement--the work of a muscle actively shortening, or contracting-- Thirty-six subjects (age 20.3 1.6 years, mass 91.63 10.36 kg, stature 182.03 5.24 cm) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG), or a high volume This pattern is called the stretch-shortening cycle, as the muscle is lengthened (while actively working) prior to shortening. Plyometric exercises are a type of training that was developed initially to address the gap between strength training and speed training with activity that involve explosive types of activities such as sprinting activities, jumping activities, etc. Plyometric Sohel Ahmed (MPT- Sports Injuries) 2. Eccentric stretching is followed by concentric shortening of the same muscles. These three components make up a stretch-shortening cycle. 1. 8 The article introduces strength and conditioning practitioners to using ground contact 9 times and the reactive strength index in plyometric training.

It is believed that during plyometric exercise, the excitatory threshold of the GTO's is increased, making them less likely to send signals to limit force production when the muscle has increased tension.